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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1754; doi:10.3390/ijms18081754

Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition

1
Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
2
Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
3
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikedanakamachi, Neyagawa 572-8508, Japan
4
Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract

Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. However, the mechanism of this TBT-induced GluR2 decrease remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of TBT on the activity of transcription factors that control GluR2 expression. Exposure of primary cortical neurons to 20 nM TBT for 3 h to 9 days resulted in a decrease in GluR2 mRNA expression. Moreover, TBT inhibited the DNA binding activity of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a transcription factor that positively regulates the GluR2. This result indicates that TBT inhibits the activity of NRF-1 and subsequently decreases GluR2 expression. In addition, 20 nM TBT decreased the expression of genes such as cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) 4, and COX 6c, which are downstream of NRF-1. Our results suggest that NRF-1 inhibition is an important molecular action of the neurotoxicity induced by low-concentration TBT. View Full-Text
Keywords: tributyltin; GluR2; nuclear respiratory factor-1; neuronal vulnerability tributyltin; GluR2; nuclear respiratory factor-1; neuronal vulnerability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ishida, K.; Aoki, K.; Takishita, T.; Miyara, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Sanoh, S.; Kimura, T.; Kanda, Y.; Ohta, S.; Kotake, Y. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1754.

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