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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1695; doi:10.3390/ijms18081695

Preparation and Evaluation of Dexamethasone (DEX)/Growth and Differentiation Factor-5 (GDF-5) Surface-Modified Titanium Using β-Cyclodextrin-Conjugated Heparin (CD-Hep) for Enhanced Osteogenic Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

1
Institute of Cell and Tissue Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
2
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 54907, Korea
3
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 05278, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterial Sciences)
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Abstract

The most ideal implant models in the dental and orthopedic fields to minimize the failure rate of implantation involve the improvement of osseointegration with host bone. Therefore, a focus of this study is the preparation of surface-modified titanium (Ti) samples of disc and screw types using dexamethasone (DEX) and/or growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5), as well as the evaluation of their efficacies on bone formation in vitro and in vivo. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement were used to evaluate the surface chemical composition, surface morphology and wettability, respectively. The results showed that implant surfaces were successfully modified with DEX and/or GDF-5, and had rough surfaces along with hydrophilicity. DEX, GDF-5 or DEX/GDF-5 on the surface-modified samples were rapidly released within one day and released for 28 days in a sustained manner. The proliferation and bone formation of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on pristine and surface-modified implants in vitro were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, as well as the measurements of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition, respectively. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on DEX/GDF-5–Ti showed noticeable ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro. Active bone formation and strong osseointegration occurred at the interface between DEX/GDF-5–Ti and host bone, as evaluated by micro computed-tomography (micro CT) analysis. Surface modification using DEX/GDF-5 could be a good method for advanced implants for orthopaedic and dental applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth and differentiation factor-5; dexamethasone; β-cyclodextrin; heparin; bone formation; osseointegration growth and differentiation factor-5; dexamethasone; β-cyclodextrin; heparin; bone formation; osseointegration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, D.H.; Yoon, S.-J.; Lee, D.-W. Preparation and Evaluation of Dexamethasone (DEX)/Growth and Differentiation Factor-5 (GDF-5) Surface-Modified Titanium Using β-Cyclodextrin-Conjugated Heparin (CD-Hep) for Enhanced Osteogenic Activity In Vitro and In Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1695.

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