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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1626; doi:10.3390/ijms18081626

Unsolved Puzzles Surrounding HCV Immunity: Heterologous Immunity Adds Another Dimension

1
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis Virus Infection and Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3497 KB, uploaded 27 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world’s population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells. Heterologous immunity occurs when this pool of memory T cells cross-react against a new pathogen in an individual. Such heterologous immunity could influence the outcome when an individual is infected by a pathogen. We have recently made an unexpected finding that adenoviruses, a common environmental pathogen and an experimental vaccine vector, can induce robust cross-reactive immune responses against multiple antigens of HCV. Our unique finding of previously uncharacterized heterologous immunity against HCV opens new avenues to understand HCV pathogenesis and develop effective vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus (HCV); adenoviruses; heterologous immunity hepatitis C virus (HCV); adenoviruses; heterologous immunity
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Agrawal, B.; Singh, S.; Gupta, N.; Li, W.; Vedi, S.; Kumar, R. Unsolved Puzzles Surrounding HCV Immunity: Heterologous Immunity Adds Another Dimension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1626.

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