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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1626; doi:10.3390/ijms18081626

Unsolved Puzzles Surrounding HCV Immunity: Heterologous Immunity Adds Another Dimension

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis Virus Infection and Research)
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Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world’s population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells. Heterologous immunity occurs when this pool of memory T cells cross-react against a new pathogen in an individual. Such heterologous immunity could influence the outcome when an individual is infected by a pathogen. We have recently made an unexpected finding that adenoviruses, a common environmental pathogen and an experimental vaccine vector, can induce robust cross-reactive immune responses against multiple antigens of HCV. Our unique finding of previously uncharacterized heterologous immunity against HCV opens new avenues to understand HCV pathogenesis and develop effective vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus (HCV); adenoviruses; heterologous immunity hepatitis C virus (HCV); adenoviruses; heterologous immunity

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Agrawal, B.; Singh, S.; Gupta, N.; Li, W.; Vedi, S.; Kumar, R. Unsolved Puzzles Surrounding HCV Immunity: Heterologous Immunity Adds Another Dimension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1626.

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