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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1597; doi:10.3390/ijms18071597

Application of Extrusion-Based Hydrogel Bioprinting for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

1
Division of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N5A9, Canada
2
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N5A9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Three-dimensional (3D) Bioprinting of Tissues and Organs)
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Abstract

Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly developing technique that has made substantial progress in the fabrication of constructs for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) over the past decade. With this technique, cell-laden hydrogels or bio-inks have been extruded onto printing stages, layer-by-layer, to form three-dimensional (3D) constructs with varying sizes, shapes, and resolutions. This paper reviews the cell sources and hydrogels that can be used for bio-ink formulations in CTE application. Additionally, this paper discusses the important properties of bio-inks to be applied in the EBB technique, including biocompatibility, printability, as well as mechanical properties. The printability of a bio-ink is associated with the formation of first layer, ink rheological properties, and crosslinking mechanisms. Further, this paper discusses two bioprinting approaches to build up cartilage constructs, i.e., self-supporting hydrogel bioprinting and hybrid bioprinting, along with their applications in fabricating chondral, osteochondral, and zonally organized cartilage regenerative constructs. Lastly, current limitations and future opportunities of EBB in printing cartilage regenerative constructs are reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage tissue engineering; extrusion-based bioprinting; hydrogels; bio-inks; self-supporting hydrogel bioprinting; hybrid bioprinting cartilage tissue engineering; extrusion-based bioprinting; hydrogels; bio-inks; self-supporting hydrogel bioprinting; hybrid bioprinting
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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You, F.; Eames, B.F.; Chen, X. Application of Extrusion-Based Hydrogel Bioprinting for Cartilage Tissue Engineering. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1597.

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