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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1552; doi:10.3390/ijms18071552

Enriching Diet with n-3 PUFAs to Help Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases in Healthy Adults: Results from Clinical Trials

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Human Nutrition, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia PV, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
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Abstract

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are believed to be important for cardiovascular health. Many investigations have been carried out in an attempt to examine the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake, in the form of supplementation or fortified foods, for the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors for CVD, whereas less is known about the effect on healthy individuals. The present study reviews the available literature in order to examine the relationship between n-3 PUFAs intake, either via supplementation or enriched food, and the prevention of CVD among healthy adults. Interventional clinical trials on subjects aged >18 years old with none of the established risk factors for CVD have been considered for review. n-3 PUFAs supplementation or enriched food may positively regulate triglycerides and some lipoprotein subsets, as well as several vascular and coagulation parameters, even in healthy patients, presenting no risk factors for CVD, suggesting a protective effect. Diet enrichment with omega-3 is likely to be useful in helping to lower the risk of developing CVD in healthy individuals, but still offers no strong evidence of a tangible benefit on a population level. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal daily intake, especially to prevent the unfavorable effects of PUFAs over-consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); cardiovascular diseases; prevention omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); cardiovascular diseases; prevention
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Manuelli, M.; Della Guardia, L.; Cena, H. Enriching Diet with n-3 PUFAs to Help Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases in Healthy Adults: Results from Clinical Trials. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1552.

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