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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1541; doi:10.3390/ijms18071541

The Interplay between the Host Receptor and Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase

1
Department Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA
2
Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract

The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of influenza A virus are responsible for the surface interactions of the virion with the host. Entry of the virus is mediated by functions of the HA: binding to cellular receptors and facilitating fusion of the virion membrane with the endosomal membrane. The HA structure contains receptor binding sites in the globular membrane distal head domains of the trimer, and the fusion machinery resides in the stem region. These sites have specific characteristics associated with subtype and host, and the differences often define species barriers. For example, avian viruses preferentially recognize α2,3-Sialic acid terminating glycans as receptors and mammalian viruses recognize α2,6-Sialic acid. The neuraminidase, or the receptor-destroying protein, cleaves the sialic acid from cellular membrane constituents and viral glycoproteins allowing for egress of nascent virions. A functional balance of activity has been demonstrated between the two glycoproteins, resulting in an optimum level of HA affinity and NA enzymatic cleavage to allow for productive infection. As more is understood about both HA and NA, the relevance for functional balance between HA and NA continues to expand, with potential implications for interspecies transmission, host adaptation, and pathogenicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza A virus; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase; glycan binding; virus-host interactions influenza A virus; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase; glycan binding; virus-host interactions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Byrd-Leotis, L.; Cummings, R.D.; Steinhauer, D.A. The Interplay between the Host Receptor and Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1541.

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