Next Article in Journal
Effects of Titanium Mesh Surfaces-Coated with Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Nanotubes on Acetabular Bone Defects in Rabbits
Next Article in Special Issue
Proteostasis of Huntingtin in Health and Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Structural Elements Recognized by Abacavir-Induced T Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Potential Modes of Intercellular α-Synuclein Transmission
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1463; doi:10.3390/ijms18071463

Detailed Characterization of Sympathetic Chain Ganglia (SChG) Neurons Supplying the Skin of the Porcine Hindlimb

1
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn 10-082, Poland
2
Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn 10-082, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Protein Homeostasis in Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4160 KB, uploaded 12 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry. The Fast Blue-positive neurons were found in the L2–S2 ganglia. Most of them were small-sized and contained DβH with PACAP, SOM, NPY or GAL. The findings of the present study provide a detailed description of the distribution and chemical coding of the SChG neurons projecting to the skin of the porcine hind leg. Such data may be the basis for further studies concerning the plasticity of these ganglia under experimental or pathological conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin-projecting neurons; chemical coding; sympathetic chain ganglia; pig skin-projecting neurons; chemical coding; sympathetic chain ganglia; pig
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kozłowska, A.; Mikołajczyk, A.; Majewski, M. Detailed Characterization of Sympathetic Chain Ganglia (SChG) Neurons Supplying the Skin of the Porcine Hindlimb. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1463.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top