Next Article in Journal
Letter to the Editor: “Detection of Ribosomal DNA Sequence Polymorphisms in the Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae for the Identification of Geographical Isolates”
Next Article in Special Issue
Growth Hormone’s Effect on Adipose Tissue: Quality versus Quantity
Previous Article in Journal
Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Autocrine Human Growth Hormone Promotes Invasive and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Behavior of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by STAT3 Dependent Inhibition of CLAUDIN-1 Expression
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1447; doi:10.3390/ijms18071447

The Role of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in the Liver

Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth Hormone: Therapeutic Possibilities)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [873 KB, uploaded 5 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is characterized by metabolic abnormalities associated with visceral obesity, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Patients with adult GHD show increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy has been shown to improve these conditions. It has also been demonstrated that a decrease in the GH insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is closely associated with the progression of general NAFLD, suggesting a physiological role of these hormones for the maintenance of the liver. NASH histologically demonstrates inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis, in addition to steatosis (and is a serious disease because it can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a subset of cases). While fibrosis determines the prognosis of the patient, efficacious treatment for fibrosis is crucial; however, it has not yet been established. Recent studies have clarified the essential roles of GH and IGF-I in the liver. GH profoundly reduces visceral fat, which plays an important role in the development of NAFLD. Furthermore, GH directly reduces lipogenesis in the hepatocytes. IGF-I induces cellular senescence and inactivates hepatic stellate cells, therefore ameliorating fibrosis. IGF-I treatment has been shown to improve animal models of NASH and cirrhosis, suggesting potential clinical applications of IGF-I in these conditions. In this review, I will focus on the important roles of GH and IGF-I in the liver, their underlying mechanisms, and their potential therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth hormone; insulin-like growth factor-I; adult growth hormone deficiency; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatic stellate cells; cirrhosis growth hormone; insulin-like growth factor-I; adult growth hormone deficiency; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatic stellate cells; cirrhosis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takahashi, Y. The Role of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in the Liver. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1447.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top