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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1418; doi:10.3390/ijms18071418

Effects of an Inhibitor of Monocyte Recruitment on Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Treated with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor

1
James A Haley VAH, Research Service, 13000 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
2
Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, 13220 Laurel Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
3
Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B, Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Administration of the hematopoietic growth factor granulocyte-colony stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has been reported to enhance recovery from controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rodent models. G-CSF exerts actions in both the periphery (stimulation of hematopoiesis) and in the brain, where it serves as a neurotrophic factor, promoting neuronal survival and stimulating neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. In order to distinguish the direct CNS actions of G-CSF from its peripheral actions, experiments were designed to block the recruitment of peripheral monocytes to the site of the lesion produced by CCI. The selective C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist (RS504303) was co-administered with G-CSF for three days after CCI in a chimeric mouse previously transplanted with GFP-expressing (GFP+) blood stem-progenitor cells. Results: The drug significantly impaired infiltration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells to the frontal cortex and striatum without impeding recovery performance and hippocampal neurogenesis in the behavioral test, the Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM). Administration of the CCR2 antagonist alone, without G-CSF, was effective in promoting recovery in RAWM. These results support the hypothesis that the direct action of G-CSF on neural cells, independent of its hematopoietic effects, is primarily responsible for enhanced recovery from CCI. In addition, this study confirms the importance of CCR2 and its ligand, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in mediating the inflammatory response following CCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; monocyte chemotactic protein-1; radial arm water maze; bone marrow transplantation; hippocampal neurogenesis granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; monocyte chemotactic protein-1; radial arm water maze; bone marrow transplantation; hippocampal neurogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, S.; Kong, X.; Acosta, S.; Sava, V.; Borlongan, C.V.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. Effects of an Inhibitor of Monocyte Recruitment on Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Treated with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1418.

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