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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1197; doi:10.3390/ijms18061197

Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract from the Seeds of Orychophragmus violaceus against Liver Injury in Mice and HepG2 Cells

1,†
,
1,2,†
,
1
,
1
,
1,* and 1,*
1
Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
2
Research Center on Life Sciences and Environmental Sciences, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150076, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4929 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Orychophragmus violaceus (O. violaceus) is a kind of edible wild herb in north China and its seeds have medical potential, however, the effect of O. violaceus seeds on liver injury and the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of O. violaceus seeds on liver injury and further explore the molecular mechanism of the beneficial effects using aqueous extract from the seeds of O. violaceus (AEOV). Mice were orally administrated with saline, AEOV, and biphenyldicarboxylate for 4 days, and were then injected subcutaneously with 0.1% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) dissolved in corn oil. Sixteen hours later, mice were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Then, the serum was separated and used for biochemical assay. Livers were excised and were routinely processed for histological examinations. Enzyme activities and protein levels in liver homogenates were detected using commercial kits or by western blot analysis. Additionally, the hepatoprotective effect of AEOV in vitro was evaluated using epigoitrin, the major alkaloid compound isolated from AEOV. We found that AEOV attenuated liver injury induced by CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aminotransferase (AST) in serum, improvement of liver histopathological changes, and substantial attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation via regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathways. These effects of AEOV were comparable to that of biphenyldicarboxylate which was commonly used as a hepatoprotective reference. Moreover, pretreatment of HepG2 cells with epigoitrin improved cell viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, attenuated the NFκB pathway, and elevated the Nrf2 pathway after exposure to H2O2. These results suggest that AEOV could effectively prevent CCl4-induced liver injury in mice via regulating the Nrf2 and NFκB pathways, and reveal the cytoprotective effects of epigoitrin against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Orychophragmus violaceus; epigoitrin; hepatoprotective effect; anti-inflammation; antioxidant Orychophragmus violaceus; epigoitrin; hepatoprotective effect; anti-inflammation; antioxidant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huo, X.; Liu, C.; Gao, L.; Xu, X.; Zhu, N.; Cao, L. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract from the Seeds of Orychophragmus violaceus against Liver Injury in Mice and HepG2 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1197.

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