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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1188; doi:10.3390/ijms18061188

Gene-Diet Interactions in Type 2 Diabetes: The Chicken and Egg Debate

1
Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa–CABIMER, 41092 Seville, Spain
2
Universidad Pablo Olavide, 41013 Seville, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions in Chronic Diseases)
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Abstract

Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies indicates that Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease resulting from the interaction of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Nutrients and dietary patterns are important environmental factors to consider in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. Nutritional genomics focuses on the interaction between bioactive food components and the genome and includes studies of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients. There is evidence supporting the existence of nutrient-gene and T2DM interactions coming from animal studies and family-based intervention studies. Moreover, many case-control, cohort, cross-sectional cohort studies and clinical trials have identified relationships between individual genetic load, diet and T2DM. Some of these studies were on a large scale. In addition, studies with animal models and human observational studies, in different countries over periods of time, support a causative relationship between adverse nutritional conditions during in utero development, persistent epigenetic changes and T2DM. This review provides comprehensive information on the current state of nutrient-gene interactions and their role in T2DM pathogenesis, the relationship between individual genetic load and diet, and the importance of epigenetic factors in influencing gene expression and defining the individual risk of T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; nutrients; nutrigenetic; nutrigenomic; epigenetic; pancreatic β-cell Type 2 diabetes; nutrients; nutrigenetic; nutrigenomic; epigenetic; pancreatic β-cell
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortega, Á.; Berná, G.; Rojas, A.; Martín, F.; Soria, B. Gene-Diet Interactions in Type 2 Diabetes: The Chicken and Egg Debate. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1188.

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