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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1183; doi:10.3390/ijms18061183

Extracellular Vesicles in Hematological Malignancies: From Biology to Therapy

1
Laboratory of Preclinical and Translational Research, IRCCS-Referral Cancer Center of Basilicata (CROB), 858028 Rionero in Vulture, Italy
2
Laboratory of Clinical Research and Advanced Diagnostics, IRCCS-Referral Cancer Center of Basilicata (CROB), 85028 Rionero in Vulture, Italy
3
CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate scarl, Federico II University, 80138 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, Federico II University, 80138 Naples, Italy
5
Scientific Direction, IRCCS-Referral Cancer Center of Basilicata (CROB), 85028 Rionero in Vulture, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Ritter, Matthew Griffin and Aideen Ryan
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [702 KB, uploaded 2 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of particles, between 15 nanometers and 10 microns in diameter, released by almost all cell types in physiological and pathological conditions, including tumors. EVs have recently emerged as particularly interesting informative vehicles, so that they could be considered a true “cell biopsy”. Indeed, EV cargo, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, generally reflects the nature and status of the origin cells. In some cases, EVs are enriched of peculiar molecular cargo, thus suggesting at least a degree of specific cellular packaging. EVs are identified as important and critical players in intercellular communications in short and long distance interplays. Here, we examine the physiological role of EVs and their activity in cross-talk between bone marrow microenvironment and neoplastic cells in hematological malignancies (HMs). In these diseases, HM EVs can modify tumor and bone marrow microenvironment, making the latter “stronger” in supporting malignancy, inducing drug resistance, and suppressing the immune system. Moreover, EVs are abundant in biologic fluids and protect their molecular cargo against degradation. For these and other “natural” characteristics, EVs could be potential biomarkers in a context of HM liquid biopsy and therapeutic tools. These aspects will be also analyzed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; hematological malignancies; bone marrow microenvironment; drug resistance; biomarkers; therapeutic tools extracellular vesicles; hematological malignancies; bone marrow microenvironment; drug resistance; biomarkers; therapeutic tools
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Caivano, A.; La Rocca, F.; Laurenzana, I.; Trino, S.; De Luca, L.; Lamorte, D.; Del Vecchio, L.; Musto, P. Extracellular Vesicles in Hematological Malignancies: From Biology to Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1183.

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