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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1112; doi:10.3390/ijms18061112

Oxidative Stress: Promoter of Allergic Sensitization to Protease Allergens?

1
Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fatima Ferreira and Hans Brandstetter
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteolysis in Allergic Sensitization and Th2 Response)
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Abstract

Allergies arise from aberrant T helper type 2 responses to allergens. Several respiratory allergens possess proteolytic activity, which has been recognized to act as an adjuvant for the development of a Th2 response. Allergen source-derived proteases can activate the protease-activated receptor-2, have specific effects on immune cells by cleaving cell membrane-bound regulatory molecules, and can disrupt tight junctions. The protease activity can induce a non-allergen-specific inflammatory response in the airways, which will set the stage for an allergen-specific Th2 response. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for the induction of oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism in Th2 sensitization to proteolytic allergens. We will discuss recent data linking the proteolytic activity of an allergen to its potential to induce oxidative stress and how this can facilitate allergic sensitization. Based on experimental data, we propose that a less proficient anti-oxidant response to allergen-induced oxidative stress contributes to the susceptibility to allergic sensitization. Besides the effect of oxidative stress on the immune response, we will also discuss how oxidative stress can increase the immunogenicity of an allergen by chemical modification. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; allergic sensitization reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; allergic sensitization
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Rijt, L.S.; Utsch, L.; Lutter, R.; van Ree, R. Oxidative Stress: Promoter of Allergic Sensitization to Protease Allergens? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1112.

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