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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1073; doi:10.3390/ijms18061073

Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde 812, Cameroon
2
Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, Maroua 55, Cameroon
3
Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaounde 812, Cameroon
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
5
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
6
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Larkin University, Miami, FL 33169, USA
7
Institute of Chemistry of Nice, Faculty of Sciences, University Côte d’Azur, Nice F-06108 Nice Cedex 2, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leticia M. Estevinho
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 29 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health and Disease)
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Abstract

A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg) and methanol (50 mg/kg) extracts significantly (p < 0.001) reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%), total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively), average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively) as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ficus umbellata; apoptosis; estrogen-dependent tumors; DMBA; cell invasion Ficus umbellata; apoptosis; estrogen-dependent tumors; DMBA; cell invasion
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Silihe, K.K.; Zingue, S.; Winter, E.; Awounfack, C.F.; Bishayee, A.; Desai, N.N.; João Mello, L., Jr.; Michel, T.; Tankeu, F.N.; Ndinteh, D.T.; Honorine Riwom, S.; Njamen, D.; Creczynski-Pasa, T.B. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1073.

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