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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 970; doi:10.3390/ijms18050970

Effects of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Developing Zebrafish Are Indicative of Disruption of Oxidative Phosphorylation

1
Environment and Health, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Institute for Environment, Health and Societies, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
Former address: Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Former address: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Unit, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Céline Audet
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Model for Toxicological Research)
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Abstract

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and wildlife. Using in vitro models, we recently showed that OH-PBDEs disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. The goal of the current study was to determine the in vivo effects of OH-PBDE reported in marine wildlife. To this end, we exposed zebrafish larvae to 17 OH-PBDEs from fertilisation to 6 days of age, and determined developmental toxicity as well as OXPHOS disruption potential with a newly developed assay of oxygen consumption in living embryos. We show here that all OH-PBDEs tested, both individually and as mixtures, resulted in a concentration-dependant delay in development in zebrafish embryos. The most potent substances were 6-OH-BDE47 and 6′-OH-BDE49 (No-Effect-Concentration: 0.1 and 0.05 µM). The first 24 h of development were the most sensitive, resulting in significant and irreversible developmental delay. All substances increased oxygen consumption, an effect indicative of OXPHOS disruption. Our results suggest that the induced developmental delay may be caused by disruption of OXPHOS. Though further studies are needed, our findings suggest that the environmental concentrations of some OH-PBDEs found in Baltic Sea wildlife in the Baltic Sea may be of toxicological concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; OXPHOS disruption; hydroxylated PBDEs zebrafish; OXPHOS disruption; hydroxylated PBDEs
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Legradi, J.; Pomeren, M.V.; Dahlberg, A.-K.; Legler, J. Effects of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Developing Zebrafish Are Indicative of Disruption of Oxidative Phosphorylation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 970.

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