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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 957; doi:10.3390/ijms18050957

Protective Effect of Fragaria ananassa Crude Extract on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes Suppression, and Apoptosis in Rat Testes

1
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt
2
Marine Natural Product Unit (MNPRU), Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt
3
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt
5
Chair Vaccines Research of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11472, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lorenza Speranza, José L. Quiles and Sara Franceschelli
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Correlation between Nutrition, Oxidative Stress and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5420 KB, uploaded 5 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cadmium is a deleterious environmental pollutant that threats both animals and human health. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been reported to be the main cause of cellular damage as a result of cadmium exposure. We investigate, here, the protective effect of strawberry crude extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes in rats. Four groups (n = 8) of 32 adult male Wistar rats weighing 160–180 g were used. The control group received 0.9% saline solution all over the experimental period (5 days). Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg CdCl2. Group 3 was provided only with an oral administration of strawberry methanolic extract (SME) at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Group 4 was treated with SME before cadmium injection with the same mentioned doses. It was shown that cadmium exposure results in a significant decrease in both relative testicular weight and serum testosterone level. Analyzing the oxidative damaging effect of cadmium on the testicular tissue revealed the induction of oxidative stress markers represented in the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Considering cadmium toxicity, the level of the antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and glutathione reductase (GR) were markedly decreased. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated significant upregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins, bcl-2-associated-X-protein (BAX), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA) in response to cadmium intoxication, while significant downregulation of the anti-apoptotic, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene was detected. Immunohistochemistry of the testicular tissue possessed positive immunostaining for the increased level of TNF-α, but decreased number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stained cells. Administration of SME debilitated the deleterious effect of cadmium via reduction of both LPO and NO levels followed by a significant enhancement in the gene expression level of CAT, SOD2, GPX1, GR, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), Bcl-2, and PCNA. In addition, the SME treated group revealed a significant increase in the level of testosterone and GSH accompanied by a marked decrease in the gene expression level of Bax and TNF-α. In terms of the summarized results, the SME of Fragaria ananassa has a protective effect against cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fragaria ananassa; oxidative stress; cadmium intoxication; testes; apoptosis Fragaria ananassa; oxidative stress; cadmium intoxication; testes; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elmallah, M.I.Y.; Elkhadragy, M.F.; Al-Olayan, E.M.; Abdel Moneim, A.E. Protective Effect of Fragaria ananassa Crude Extract on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes Suppression, and Apoptosis in Rat Testes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 957.

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