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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 930; doi:10.3390/ijms18050930

Hydroxytyrosol and Cytoprotection: A Projection for Clinical Interventions

1
Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, Independencia, Santiago 8380453, Chile
2
Nutrition and Dietetics School, Faculty of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Maule, Merced 333, Curicó 3340000, Chile
3
Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, Independencia, Santiago 8380453, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Arráez-Román and Ana Maria Gómez Caravaca
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [410 KB, uploaded 28 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) ((3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is a polyphenol mainly present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) but also in red wine. It has a potent antioxidant effect related to hydrogen donation, and the ability to improve radical stability. The phenolic content of olive oil varies between 100 and 600 mg/kg, due to multiple factors (place of cultivation, climate, variety of the olive and level of ripening at the time of harvest), with HT and its derivatives providing half of that content. When consumed, EVOO’s phenolic compounds are hydrolyzed in the stomach and intestine, increasing levels of free HT which is then absorbed in the small intestine, forming phase II metabolites. It has been demonstrated that HT consumption is safe even at high doses, and that is not genotoxic or mutagenic in vitro. The beneficial effects of HT have been studied in humans, as well as cellular and animal models, mostly in relation to consumption of EVOO. Many properties, besides its antioxidant capacity, have been attributed to this polyphenol. The aim of this review was to assess the main properties of HT for human health with emphasis on those related to the possible prevention and/or treatment of non-communicable diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxytyrosol; cytoprotective effects; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; anticancer; non-communicable diseases hydroxytyrosol; cytoprotective effects; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; anticancer; non-communicable diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Echeverría, F.; Ortiz, M.; Valenzuela, R.; Videla, L.A. Hydroxytyrosol and Cytoprotection: A Projection for Clinical Interventions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 930.

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