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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1082; doi:10.3390/ijms18051082

Neurotrauma: The Crosstalk between Neurotrophins and Inflammation in the Acutely Injured Brain

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular Aplicada à Saúde, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas CEP 92425-900, Brazil
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Academic Editors: Margaret Fahnestock and Keri Martinowic
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotrophic Factors—Historical Perspective and New Directions)
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Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure. These areas of secondary injury progression, or areas of “traumatic penumbra”, represent crucial targets for therapeutic interventions. Neurotrophins are a class of signaling molecules that promote survival and/or maintenance of neurons. They also stimulate axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and neurotransmitter synthesis and release. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of neurotrophins in the acute post-injury response. Here, we discuss possible endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms of neurotrophins in the prevailing environment surrounding the injured areas, and highlight the crosstalk between neurotrophins and inflammation with focus on neurovascular unit cells, particularly pericytes. The perspective is that neurotrophins may represent promising targets for research on neuroprotective and neurorestorative processes in the short-term following TBI. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; neurotrophins; acute neural injury; inflammation; neuroprotection; traumatic penumbra; brain derived neurotrophic factor; neurovascular unit; pericytes traumatic brain injury; neurotrophins; acute neural injury; inflammation; neuroprotection; traumatic penumbra; brain derived neurotrophic factor; neurovascular unit; pericytes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva Meirelles, L.; Simon, D.; Regner, A. Neurotrauma: The Crosstalk between Neurotrophins and Inflammation in the Acutely Injured Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1082.

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