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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1062; doi:10.3390/ijms18051062

Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

1
Division of Pulmonary Diseases & Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
2
University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78240, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco B. Blasi
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Diseases: Chronic Respiratory Infections)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [303 KB, uploaded 16 May 2017]

Abstract

The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerosols; cystic fibrosis; bronchiectasis; nontuberculous mycobacteria aerosols; cystic fibrosis; bronchiectasis; nontuberculous mycobacteria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Maselli, D.J.; Keyt, H.; Restrepo, M.I. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1062.

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