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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 808; doi:10.3390/ijms18040808

SUMO-Specific Cysteine Protease 1 Promotes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer Cells via Regulating SMAD4 deSUMOylation

1
Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China
2
Gene Therapy Program, Department of Medicine, NorthShore Research Institute, Evanston, IL 60201, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carsten Stephan
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 2 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract

In advanced prostate cancer, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific cysteine protease 1 (SENP1) is up-regulated. However, the role of SENP1 in regulating deSUMOylation of TGF-β/SMADs signaling is unknown. In this study, we developed a lentiviral vector, PLKO.1-shSENP1, to silence SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with high metastatic characteristics (PC3M). Likewise, we also created an adenovirus vector, Ad5/F11p-SENP1 to over-express SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with low metastatic potential (LNCaP). We showed that silencing of SENP1 promoted cellular apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation and migration of PC3M cells. Moreover, SENP1 silencing increased the SMAD4 expression at protein level, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated Vimentin expression, indicating the inhibition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, SMAD4 interference abolished SENP1-mediated up-regulation of E-cadherin, suggesting that SENP1 regulated E-cadherin expression via SMAD4. SENP1 over-expression in LNCaP cells reduced SMAD4 protein, and promoted EMT via decreasing E-cadherin and increasing Vimentin. Moreover, down-regulation of SMAD4 and E-cadherin were blocked, after transfection with two SUMOylation sites mutated SMAD4, suggesting that SENP1 might reduce SMAD4 levels to regulate E-cadherin expression via deSUMOylation of SMAD4. In conclusion, SENP1 deSUMOylated SMAD4 to promote EMT via up-regulating E-cadherin in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, SENP1 is a potential target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: SENP1; deSUMOylation; EMT; SMAD4; E-cadherin; prostate cancer SENP1; deSUMOylation; EMT; SMAD4; E-cadherin; prostate cancer
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Zhang, X.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Xiao, F.; Seth, P.; Xu, W.; Jia, Q.; Wu, C.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L. SUMO-Specific Cysteine Protease 1 Promotes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer Cells via Regulating SMAD4 deSUMOylation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 808.

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