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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 766; doi:10.3390/ijms18040766

Visualization of Alternative Functional Configurations of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Facilitates Rapid Selection of Complementing Vaccines in Emergency Situations

1
Veterinary Virologist and Consultant, Cairo 11441, Egypt
2
Virology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hsin-Fu Liu and Jih-Hui Lin
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Abstract

Successful immunization against avian influenza virus (AIV) requires eliciting an adequate polyclonal response to AIV hemagglutinin (HA) subunit 1 (HA1) epitopes. Outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) AIV subtype H5N1 can occur in vaccinated flocks in many endemic areas. Protection against emerging AIV is partly hindered by the limitations of vaccine production and transport, the use of leaky vaccines, and the use of multiple, and often antigenically-diverse, vaccines. It was hypothesized that the majority of alternative functional configurations (AFC) within the AIV HA1 can be represented by the pool of vaccine seed viruses currently in production because only a finite number of AFC are possible within each substructure of the molecule. Therefore, combinations of commercial vaccines containing complementing structural units (CSU) to each HA1 substructure can elicit responses to the totality of a given emerging AIV HA1 substructure isoforms. Analysis of homology-based 3D models of vaccine seed and emerging viruses facilitated the definition of HA1 AFC isoforms. CSU-based plots were used to predict which commercial vaccine combinations could have been used to cover nine selected AFC isoforms on recent Egyptian HP AIV H5N1 outbreak viruses. It is projected that expansion of the vaccine HA1 3D model database will improve international emergency responses to AIV. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D modeling; alternative functional configurations; anchor sites; avian influenza virus; complementing structural units; escape mutants; fitness condition; hemagglutinin; vaccine combinations; vulnerable sites 3D modeling; alternative functional configurations; anchor sites; avian influenza virus; complementing structural units; escape mutants; fitness condition; hemagglutinin; vaccine combinations; vulnerable sites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Metwally, A.; Yousif, A. Visualization of Alternative Functional Configurations of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Facilitates Rapid Selection of Complementing Vaccines in Emergency Situations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 766.

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