Next Article in Journal
Role of Genetics in the Etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Towards a Hierarchical Diagnostic Strategy
Next Article in Special Issue
Natural Killer Cells Response to IL-2 Stimulation Is Distinct between Ascites with the Presence or Absence of Malignant Cells in Ovarian Cancer Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Review of Prospects of Biological Fluid Biomarkers in Osteoarthritis
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 616; doi:10.3390/ijms18030616

Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study

Hospital Universitário Cajuru—Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná—Curitiba PR, Curitiba, Paraná CEP 80050-350, Brazil
Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Paraná CEP 81531-990, Brazil
Hospital da Mulher “Prof. Dr. José Aristodemo Pinotti”—CAISM, University of Campinas, São Paulo CEP 13083-887, Brazil
Núcleo de Tecnologia Celular—Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná—Curitiba PR, Curitiba, Paraná CEP 80215-901, Brazil
Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Division of Molecular Immunology, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicholas Huntington and Sam Kung
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Killer (NK) Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [743 KB, uploaded 12 March 2017]   |  


Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms behind its cellular trafficking and its role in disease development is restricted to studies in animal models. In this study, we aimed to compare the human NK cell subset (CD56bright or dim) levels in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of sepsis patients. We conducted a case-control study with a sample size consisting of 10 control patients and 23 sepsis patients enrolled at the Hospital Cajuru (Curitiba/PR, Brazil) from 2013 to 2015. Although we were able to confirm previous observations of peripheral blood lymphopenia, no significant differences were detected in NK cell levels in the BAL fluid of these patients. Overall, these findings strengthened the evidence that peripheral blood lymphopenia is likely to be associated with cell death as a consequence of sepsis. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural killer (NK) cells; lung sepsis; lymphopenia; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) natural killer (NK) cells; lung sepsis; lymphopenia; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, P.; Guimaraes, F.; Natânia De Souza-Araujo, C.; Maria Boldrini Leite, L.; Cristina Senegaglia, A.; Nishiyama, A.; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, F. Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 616.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top