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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 582; doi:10.3390/ijms18030582

Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden
2
Genetic Epidemiology, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Lund University, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sabrina Angelini
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 8 March 2017]

Abstract

Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003), and glucose levels (p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001), obesity (p = 0.047), and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048). We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood pressure; gastrointestinal disorders; gastrointestinal symptoms; hyperlipidemia; obesity; overweight; zonulin blood pressure; gastrointestinal disorders; gastrointestinal symptoms; hyperlipidemia; obesity; overweight; zonulin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ohlsson, B.; Orho-Melander, M.; Nilsson, P.M. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 582.

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