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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 388; doi:10.3390/ijms18020388

Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy

1
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
2
Department of Pediatrics, Daejeon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon 34943, Korea
Academic Editor: Susanna Esposito
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [224 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]

Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis). The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin) as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS. View Full-Text
Keywords: pneumonia; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pathogenesis; protein-homeostasis-system; corticosteroid; intravenous immunoglobulin pneumonia; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pathogenesis; protein-homeostasis-system; corticosteroid; intravenous immunoglobulin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, K.-Y. Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 388.

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