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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 384; doi:10.3390/ijms18020384

The Mechanisms and Biomedical Applications of an NIR BODIPY-Based Switchable Fluorescent Probe

1
Ultrasound and Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
2
Joint Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Arlington and The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
3
Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
4
Department of Bioengineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jamal Zweit, Sundaresan Gobalakrishnan and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 31 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecular Imaging in the Era of Precision Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3146 KB, uploaded 11 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Highly environment-sensitive fluorophores have been desired for many biomedical applications. Because of the noninvasive operation, high sensitivity, and high specificity to the microenvironment change, they can be used as excellent probes for fluorescence sensing/imaging, cell tracking/imaging, molecular imaging for cancer, and so on (i.e., polarity, viscosity, temperature, or pH measurement). In this work, investigations of the switching mechanism of a recently reported near-infrared environment-sensitive fluorophore, ADP(CA)2, were conducted. Besides, multiple potential biomedical applications of this switchable fluorescent probe have been demonstrated, including wash-free live-cell fluorescence imaging, in vivo tissue fluorescence imaging, temperature sensing, and ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging. The fluorescence of the ADP(CA)2 is extremely sensitive to the microenvironment, especially polarity and viscosity. Our investigations showed that the fluorescence of ADP(CA)2 can be switched on by low polarity, high viscosity, or the presence of protein and surfactants. In wash-free live-cell imaging, the fluorescence of ADP(CA)2 inside cells was found much brighter than the dye-containing medium and was retained for at least two days. In all of the fluorescence imaging applications conducted in this study, high target-to-noise (>5-fold) was achieved. In addition, a high temperature sensitivity (73-fold per Celsius degree) of ADP(CA)2-based temperature probes was found in temperature sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: aza-BODIPY; environment-sensitive fluorophore; switchable fluorescent probe; near-infrared; wash-free live-cell imaging; in vivo fluorescence imaging; temperature sensing; USF imaging aza-BODIPY; environment-sensitive fluorophore; switchable fluorescent probe; near-infrared; wash-free live-cell imaging; in vivo fluorescence imaging; temperature sensing; USF imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, B.; Bandi, V.; Yu, S.; D’Souza, F.; Nguyen, K.T.; Hong, Y.; Tang, L.; Yuan, B. The Mechanisms and Biomedical Applications of an NIR BODIPY-Based Switchable Fluorescent Probe. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 384.

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