Next Article in Journal
Chitosan-Recombinamer Layer-by-Layer Coatings for Multifunctional Implants
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Photon Hormesis on Dose Responses to Alpha Particles in Zebrafish Embryos
Previous Article in Journal
Detecting Blood-Based Biomarkers in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Their Current Status and Clinical Utility
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cell Imaging Counting as a Novel Ex Vivo Approach for Investigating Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish Larvae
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 365; doi:10.3390/ijms18020365

Transcriptional and Behavioral Responses of Zebrafish Larvae to Microcystin-LR Exposure

1
Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2
Division of Biomedical Research, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, 45110 Ιοannina, Greece
3
BIOBIDE, Paseo Mikeletegi 56, 20009 San Sebastian, Spain
4
Laboratory of Zoology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juliette Legler
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Model for Toxicological Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1080 KB, uploaded 9 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides that constitute a diverse group of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. One of the most toxic variants of this family is microcystin-LR (MCLR) which is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and induces cytoskeleton alterations. In this study, zebrafish larvae exposed to 500 μg/L of MCLR for four days exhibited a 40% reduction of PP2A activity compared to the controls, indicating early effects of the toxin. Gene expression profiling of the MCLR-exposed larvae using microarray analysis revealed that keratin 96 (krt96) was the most downregulated gene, consistent with the well-documented effects of MCLR on cytoskeleton structure. In addition, our analysis revealed upregulation in all genes encoding for the enzymes of the retinal visual cycle, including rpe65a (retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65a), which is critical for the larval vision. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis confirmed the microarray data, showing that rpe65a was significantly upregulated at 50 μg/L and 500 μg/L MCLR in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with the microarray data, MCLR-treated larvae displayed behavioral alterations such as weakening response to the sudden darkness and hypoactivity in the dark. Our work reveals new molecular targets for MCLR and provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms of MCLR toxicity during early development. View Full-Text
Keywords: MCLR; zebrafish; gene expression; behavior; visual cycle MCLR; zebrafish; gene expression; behavior; visual cycle
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tzima, E.; Serifi, I.; Tsikari, I.; Alzualde, A.; Leonardos, I.; Papamarcaki, T. Transcriptional and Behavioral Responses of Zebrafish Larvae to Microcystin-LR Exposure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 365.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top