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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122703

Phylodynamic and Genetic Diversity of Canine Parvovirus Type 2c in Taiwan

1
Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan
2
Department of Nursing, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung 82144, Taiwan
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
5
Center of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei 11561, Taiwan
6
Animal Disease Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
7
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
8
Department of Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei 11219, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Comparative Genomics)
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Abstract

Canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) emerged in 2000 and is known for causing a more severe disease than other CPV-2 variants in puppies. In 2015, the emerging CPV-2c variant was isolated in Taiwan and it subsequently became the predominant variant. To trace the evolution of Taiwanese CPV-2c, we compared complete VP2 genes of CPV-2c from Taiwan and sequences obtained from GenBank. The evolutionary rate of CPV-2c was estimated to be 4.586 × 10−4 substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density (HPD) was 3.284–6.076 × 10−4). The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) dated to 1990 (95% HPD: 1984–1996) and 2011 (95% HPD: 2010–2013) for the CPV-2c variant and Taiwanese isolates, respectively. The CPV-2c variant isolated from Taiwan was clustered with CPV-2c from China. This phylogenetic clade began to branch off in approximately 2010 (95% HPD was 3.823–6.497). Notably, two unique mutations of Taiwanese CPV-2c were found, Q383R and P410L. In summary, this is the first report on the genome evolution of CPV-2c in Taiwan, revealing that this CPV-2c variant shares a common evolutionary origin with strains from China. The demographic history inferred by the Bayesian skyline plot showed that the effective population of CPV-2c increased until 2006 and then slowly declined until 2011. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine parvovirus 2c; Phylodynamic; Time to the most recent common ancestor canine parvovirus 2c; Phylodynamic; Time to the most recent common ancestor
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Lin, Y.-C.; Chiang, S.-Y.; Wu, H.-Y.; Lin, J.-H.; Chiou, M.-T.; Liu, H.-F.; Lin, C.-N. Phylodynamic and Genetic Diversity of Canine Parvovirus Type 2c in Taiwan. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2703.

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