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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2666; doi:10.3390/ijms18122666

Azithromycin and Chloramphenicol Diminish Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Release

1
Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental Age, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
2
Student’s Scientific Group at Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental Age, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
3
Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract

Neutrophils are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of infection, where they apply several strategies to kill pathogens: degranulation, respiratory burst, phagocytosis, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Antibiotics have an immunomodulating effect, and they can influence the properties of numerous immune cells, including neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of azithromycin and chloramphenicol on degranulation, apoptosis, respiratory burst, and the release of NETs by neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors by density-gradient centrifugation method and incubated for 1 h with the studied antibiotics at different concentrations (0.5, 10 and 50 μg/mL—azithromycin and 10 and 50 μg/mL—chloramphenicol). Next, NET release was induced by a 3 h incubation with 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Amount of extracellular DNA was quantified by fluorometry, and NETs were visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy. Degranulation, apoptosis and respiratory burst were assessed by flow cytometry. We found that pretreatment of neutrophils with azithromycin and chloramphenicol decreases the release of NETs. Moreover, azithromycin showed a concentration-dependent effect on respiratory burst in neutrophils. Chloramphenicol did not affect degranulation, apoptosis nor respiratory burst. It can be concluded that antibiotics modulate the ability of neutrophils to release NETs influencing human innate immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: azithromycin; chloramphenicol; neutrophil extracellular traps azithromycin; chloramphenicol; neutrophil extracellular traps
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bystrzycka, W.; Manda-Handzlik, A.; Sieczkowska, S.; Moskalik, A.; Demkow, U.; Ciepiela, O. Azithromycin and Chloramphenicol Diminish Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Release. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2666.

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