Next Article in Journal
A New Bone Substitute Developed from 3D-Prints of Polylactide (PLA) Loaded with Collagen I: An In Vitro Study
Previous Article in Journal
Lipopolysaccharide Modifies Glycerol Permeability and Metabolism in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Mini-Review of the NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Dementia: Correlation with NOXs and Risk Factors for VaD
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122563

Cellular and Oxidative Mechanisms Associated with Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Vasculature

Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Arthur C. Guyton Laboratory Research Building, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1178 KB, uploaded 29 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide, promote endothelial dysfunction and alterations in vascular structure. It is increasingly recognized that inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. IL-6 is increased in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. IL-6 is also associated with a higher incidence of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Both immune and vascular cells produce IL-6 in response to a number of stimuli, such as angiotensin II. The vasculature is responsive to IL-6 produced from vascular and non-vascular sources via classical IL-6 signaling involving a membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and membrane-bound gp130 via Jak/STAT as well as SHP2-dependent signaling pathways. IL-6 signaling is unique because it can also occur via a soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) which allows for IL-6 signaling in tissues that do not normally express IL-6R through a process referred to as IL-6 trans-signaling. IL-6 signaling mediates a vast array of effects in the vascular wall, including endothelial activation, vascular permeability, immune cell recruitment, endothelial dysfunction, as well as vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Many of the effects of IL-6 on vascular function and structure are representative of loss or reductions in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. IL-6 has direct effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and expression as well as increasing vascular superoxide, which rapidly inactivates NO thereby limiting NO bioavailability. The goal of this review is to highlight both the cellular and oxidative mechanisms associated with IL-6-signaling in the vascular wall in general, in hypertension, and in response to angiotensin II. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiotensin II; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; inflammation; NADPH oxidase; superoxide; vascular biology angiotensin II; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; inflammation; NADPH oxidase; superoxide; vascular biology
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Didion, S.P. Cellular and Oxidative Mechanisms Associated with Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Vasculature. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2563.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top