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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112360

Vitamin D Axis in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Role, Current Uses and Future Perspectives

1
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, Division of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
2
Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
Digestive Health Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract

Increasing evidence supports the concept that the vitamin D axis possesses immunoregulatory functions, with vitamin D receptor (VDR) status representing the major determinant of vitamin D’s pleiotropic effects. Vitamin D promotes the production of anti-microbial peptides, including β-defensins and cathelicidins, the shift towards Th2 immune responses, and regulates autophagy and epithelial barrier integrity. Impairment of vitamin D-mediated pathways are associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Interestingly, inhibition of vitamin D pathways results in dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, which has mechanistically been implicated in the development of IBD. Herein, we explore the role of the vitamin D axis in immune-mediated diseases, with particular emphasis on its interplay with the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of IBD. The potential clinical implications and therapeutic relevance of this interaction will also be discussed, including optimizing VDR function, both with vitamin D analogues and probiotics, which may represent a complementary approach to current IBD treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D receptor; vitamin D metabolism; intracellular signaling; regulation of immune system; analogs of vitamin D; dysbiosis vitamin D receptor; vitamin D metabolism; intracellular signaling; regulation of immune system; analogs of vitamin D; dysbiosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Del Pinto, R.; Ferri, C.; Cominelli, F. Vitamin D Axis in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Role, Current Uses and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2360.

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