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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2354; doi:10.3390/ijms18112354

miRNAs, Melanoma and Microenvironment: An Intricate Network

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Abstract

miRNAs are central players in cancer biology and they play a pivotal role in mediating the network communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment. In melanoma, miRNAs can impair or facilitate a wide array of processes, and here we will focus on: the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the immune milieu, and metabolism. Multiple miRNAs can affect the EMT process, even at a distance, for example through exosome-mediated mechanisms. miRNAs also strongly act on some components of the immune system, regulating the activity of key elements such as antigen presenting cells, and can facilitate an immune evasive/suppressive phenotype. miRNAs are also involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, specifically in response to hypoxic stimuli where they can mediate the metabolic switch from an oxidative to a glycolytic metabolism. Overall, this review discusses and summarizes recent findings on miRNA regulation in the melanoma tumor microenvironment, analyzing their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; melanoma; tumor microenvironment; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); immune system; hypoxia; metabolism miRNA; melanoma; tumor microenvironment; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); immune system; hypoxia; metabolism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Romano, G.; Kwong, L.N. miRNAs, Melanoma and Microenvironment: An Intricate Network. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2354.

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