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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112315

Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets

1
Vascular Research Lab, FIIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz-Autonoma University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain
3
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28046 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Diseases)
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Abstract

Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL) in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherothrombosis; oxidative stress; lipids/lipoprotein oxidation; biomarkers atherothrombosis; oxidative stress; lipids/lipoprotein oxidation; biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Martin-Ventura, J.L.; Rodrigues-Diez, R.; Martinez-Lopez, D.; Salaices, M.; Blanco-Colio, L.M.; Briones, A.M. Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2315.

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