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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112295

Inter-Species Host Gene Expression Differences in Response to Human and Avian Influenza A Virus Strains

1
School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore
2
Bioinformatics Institute (BII), 30 Biopolis Street, #07-01 Matrix Building, Singapore 138671, Singapore
3
Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa P.O. Box 1176, Ethiopia
4
Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510, Singapore
5
LKC School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore
6
Department of Biological Sciences (DBS), National University Singapore (NUS), 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are a source of sporadic human infections and could also contribute to future pandemic outbreaks but little is known about inter-species differences in the host responses to these viruses. Here, we studied host gene expression signatures of cell lines from three species (human, chicken, and canine) in response to six different viruses (H1N1/WSN, H5N2/F59, H5N2/F118, H5N2/F189, H5N3 and H9N2). Comprehensive microarray probe set re-annotation and ortholog mapping of the host genes was necessary to allow comparison over extended functionally annotated gene sets and orthologous pathways. The annotations are made available to the community for commonly used microarray chips. We observe a strong tendency of the response being cell type- rather than virus-specific. In chicken cells, we found up-regulation of host factors inducing virus infectivity (e.g., oxysterol binding protein like 1A (OSBPL1A) and Rho GTPase activating protein 21 (ARHGAP21)) while reducing apoptosis (e.g., mitochondrial ribosomal protein S27 (MRPS27)) and increasing cell proliferation (e.g., COP9 signalosome subunit 2 (COPS2)). On the other hand, increased antiviral, pro-apoptotic and inflammatory signatures have been identified in human cells while cell cycle and metabolic pathways were down-regulated. This signature describes how low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are being tolerated and shed from chicken but potentially causing cellular disruption in mammalian cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza A virus; inter-species transcriptome; apoptosis; metabolic pathways influenza A virus; inter-species transcriptome; apoptosis; metabolic pathways
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Taye, B.; Yeo, D.; Lee, R.T.C.; Tan, B.H.; Sugrue, R.J.; Maurer-Stroh, S. Inter-Species Host Gene Expression Differences in Response to Human and Avian Influenza A Virus Strains. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2295.

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