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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112291

Synergies of Targeting Tumor Angiogenesis and Immune Checkpoints in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Renal Cell Cancer: From Basic Concepts to Clinical Reality

1
Internal Medicine 5, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstreet 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Medical Clinic 3, Department of Oncology, Hematology, Immunoncology and Rheumatology, University Hospital Bonn (UKB), 53127 Bonn, Germany
3
Department of Urology, Uro-Oncology, Robot-Assisted and Reconstructive Urologic Surgery, University Hospital Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany
4
Department of Internal Medicine I, Center for Oncology, Hematology and Palliative Care, Wilhelminenspital, 1160 Vienna, Austria
5
Department of Urology, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Immune Checkpoints and Immunotherapy)
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Abstract

In recent years, considerable advances concerning therapeutic strategies in patients with metastatic cancer have been achieved. Particularly in renal cell cancer (RCC) and advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), immune-activating and antiangiogenic (AA) drugs (i.e., checkpoint antibodies and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptors (VEGFR) targeting compounds, respectively) have been successfully developed. As immune-effector cells have to enter the tumor, it is tempting to speculate that the combination of immunotherapy with AA treatment may induce synergistic effects. In this short review, we explore the theoretical background and the therapeutic potential of this novel treatment option for patients with advanced RCC or NSCLC. We discuss the growing body of evidence that pro-angiogenic factors negatively modulate the T-cell-mediated immune response and examine the preclinical evidence for testing combined immune-activating and AA therapy concepts in clinical practice. Particular attention will also be paid to potential novel treatment-related adverse events induced by combination treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiogenesis; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibition; VEGF inhibition; renal cell cancer; non-small cell lung cancer angiogenesis; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibition; VEGF inhibition; renal cell cancer; non-small cell lung cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pircher, A.; Wolf, D.; Heidenreich, A.; Hilbe, W.; Pichler, R.; Heidegger, I. Synergies of Targeting Tumor Angiogenesis and Immune Checkpoints in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Renal Cell Cancer: From Basic Concepts to Clinical Reality. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2291.

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