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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112289

Apoptosis Induced by the Curcumin Analogue EF-24 Is Neither Mediated by Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms nor Affected by Expression of Main Drug Transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in Human Leukemia Cells

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, Olomouc 77515, Czech Republic
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Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Biology and Treatment of Myeloid Leukaemias)
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Abstract

The synthetic curcumin analogue, 3,5-bis[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-4-piperidinone (EF-24), suppresses NF-κB activity and exhibits antiproliferative effects against a variety of cancer cells in vitro. Recently, it was reported that EF-24-induced apoptosis was mediated by a redox-dependent mechanism. Here, we studied the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on EF-24-induced cell death. We also addressed the question of whether the main drug transporters, ABCB1 and ABCG2, affect the cytotoxic of EF-24. We observed that EF-24 induced cell death with apoptotic hallmarks in human leukemia K562 cells. Importantly, the loss of cell viability was preceded by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and by a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH). However, neither ROS production nor the decrease in GSH predominantly contributed to the EF-24-induced cell death. We found that EF-24 formed an adduct with GSH, which is likely the mechanism contributing to the decrease of GSH. Although NAC abrogated ROS production, decreased GSH and prevented cell death, its protective effect was mainly due to a rapid conversion of intra- and extra-cellular EF-24 into the EF-24-NAC adduct without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, we found that neither overexpression of ABCB1 nor ABCG2 reduced the antiproliferative effects of EF-24. In conclusion, a redox-dependent-mediated mechanism only marginally contributes to the EF-24-induced apoptosis in K562 cells. The main mechanism of NAC protection against EF-24-induced apoptosis is conversion of cytotoxic EF-24 into the noncytotoxic EF-24-NAC adduct. Neither ABCB1 nor ABCG2 mediated resistance to EF-24. View Full-Text
Keywords: NF-κB; Nrf2; EF-24-GSH adduct; EF-24-NAC adduct; K562 cells NF-κB; Nrf2; EF-24-GSH adduct; EF-24-NAC adduct; K562 cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Skoupa, N.; Dolezel, P.; Ruzickova, E.; Mlejnek, P. Apoptosis Induced by the Curcumin Analogue EF-24 Is Neither Mediated by Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms nor Affected by Expression of Main Drug Transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in Human Leukemia Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2289.

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