Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves
AbstractIn recent years a high demand for natural ingredients with nutraceutical properties has been witnessed, for which the development of more environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient extraction solvents and methods play a primary role. In this perspective, in this work, the application of deep eutectic solvents (DES), composed of quaternary ammonium salts and organic acids, as alternative solvents for the extraction of cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. leaves was studied. After selecting the most promising DES, their aqueous solutions were investigated, allowing to obtain a maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 6.20 wt %, using 70 wt % of water. The sustainability of the extraction process was further optimized by carrying out several extraction cycles, reusing either the biomass or the aqueous solutions of DES. A maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 7.76 wt % by reusing the solvent, and of 8.96 wt % by reusing the biomass, have been obtained. Taking advantage of the cynaropicrin solubility limit in aqueous solutions, water was added as an anti-solvent, allowing to recover 73.6 wt % of the extracted cynaropicrin. This work demonstrates the potential of aqueous solutions of DES for the extraction of value-added compounds from biomass and the possible recovery of both the target compounds and solvents. View Full-Text
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de Faria, E.L.P.; do Carmo, R.S.; Cláudio, A.F.M.; Freire, C.S.R.; Freire, M.G.; Silvestre, A.J.D. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2276.
de Faria ELP, do Carmo RS, Cláudio AFM, Freire CSR, Freire MG, Silvestre AJD. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(11):2276.Chicago/Turabian Style
de Faria, Emanuelle L.P.; do Carmo, Rafael S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Freire, Carmen S.R.; Freire, Mara G.; Silvestre, Armando J.D. 2017. "Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 11: 2276.
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