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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2276; doi:10.3390/ijms18112276

Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves

CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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In recent years a high demand for natural ingredients with nutraceutical properties has been witnessed, for which the development of more environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient extraction solvents and methods play a primary role. In this perspective, in this work, the application of deep eutectic solvents (DES), composed of quaternary ammonium salts and organic acids, as alternative solvents for the extraction of cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. leaves was studied. After selecting the most promising DES, their aqueous solutions were investigated, allowing to obtain a maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 6.20 wt %, using 70 wt % of water. The sustainability of the extraction process was further optimized by carrying out several extraction cycles, reusing either the biomass or the aqueous solutions of DES. A maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 7.76 wt % by reusing the solvent, and of 8.96 wt % by reusing the biomass, have been obtained. Taking advantage of the cynaropicrin solubility limit in aqueous solutions, water was added as an anti-solvent, allowing to recover 73.6 wt % of the extracted cynaropicrin. This work demonstrates the potential of aqueous solutions of DES for the extraction of value-added compounds from biomass and the possible recovery of both the target compounds and solvents. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep eutectic solvent; aqueous solution; cynaropicrin; extraction; recovery deep eutectic solvent; aqueous solution; cynaropicrin; extraction; recovery

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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de Faria, E.L.P.; do Carmo, R.S.; Cláudio, A.F.M.; Freire, C.S.R.; Freire, M.G.; Silvestre, A.J.D. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2276.

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