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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102213

Kinases of eIF2a Switch Translation of mRNA Subset during Neuronal Plasticity

Cellular Neurobiology of Learning Lab, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117485, Russia
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Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2017)
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Abstract

Compared to other types of cells, neurons express the largest number of diverse mRNAs, including neuron-specific ones. This mRNA diversity is required for neuronal function, memory storage, maintenance and retrieval. Regulation of translation in neurons is very complicated and involves various proteins. Some proteins, implementing translational control in other cell types, are used by neurons for synaptic plasticity. In this review, we discuss the neuron-specific activity of four kinases: protein kinase R (PKR), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2), and heme-reguated eIF2α kinase (HRI), the substrate for which is α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α is necessary for the cell during stress conditions, such as lack of amino acids, energy stress or viral infection. We propose that, during memory formation, neurons use some mechanisms similar to those involved in the cellular stress. The four eIF2α kinases regulate translation of certain mRNAs containing upstream open reading frames (uORFs). These mRNAs encode proteins involved in the processes of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). The review examines some neuronal proteins for which translation regulation by eIF2 was suggested and checked experimentally. Of such proteins, we pay close attention to protein kinase Mζ, which is involved in memory storage and regulated at the translational level. View Full-Text
Keywords: eIF2; eIF2α kinases; 5’-UTR; uORFs; neuronal plasticity; PKMζ; cell stress; neuronal pathologies eIF2; eIF2α kinases; 5’-UTR; uORFs; neuronal plasticity; PKMζ; cell stress; neuronal pathologies
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Chesnokova, E.; Bal, N.; Kolosov, P. Kinases of eIF2a Switch Translation of mRNA Subset during Neuronal Plasticity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2213.

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