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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102205

Antioxidant Defence, Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Saliva, Plasma and Erythrocytes of Dementia Patients. Can Salivary AGE be a Marker of Dementia?

1
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok, 16-070 Choroszcz, Poland
3
Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in dementia pathogenesis; however, its impact on salivary secretion and salivary qualities is still unknown. This study included 80 patients with moderate dementia and 80 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Salivary flow, antioxidants (salivary peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid and total antioxidant capacity), and oxidative damage products (advanced oxidation protein products, advanced glycation end products (AGE), 8-isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and total oxidant status) were estimated in non-stimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as in plasma and erythrocytes. We show that in dementia patients the concentration/activity of major salivary antioxidants changes, and the level of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids is increased compared to healthy controls. Non-stimulated and stimulated salivary secretions were significantly reduced in dementia patients. The deterioration in mini mental state examination (MMSE) score correlated with salivary AGE levels, which when considered with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, suggests their potential role in the non-invasive diagnosis of dementia. In conclusion, dementia is associated with disturbed salivary redox homeostasis and impaired secretory function of the salivary glands. Salivary AGE may be useful in the diagnosis of dementia. View Full-Text
Keywords: dementia; oxidative stress; oxidative damage; saliva dementia; oxidative stress; oxidative damage; saliva
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Choromańska, M.; Klimiuk, A.; Kostecka-Sochoń, P.; Wilczyńska, K.; Kwiatkowski, M.; Okuniewska, N.; Waszkiewicz, N.; Zalewska, A.; Maciejczyk, M. Antioxidant Defence, Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Saliva, Plasma and Erythrocytes of Dementia Patients. Can Salivary AGE be a Marker of Dementia? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2205.

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