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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102147

Diabetes-Induced Dysfunction of Mitochondria and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and the Nervous System

1
Musculoskeletal Molecular Biology Research Group, Basic and Translational Research Center for Hard Tissue Disease, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
2
Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565, Ibaraki, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Research)
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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases spread all over the world, which results in hyperglycemia caused by the breakdown of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. Diabetes has been reported to disrupt the functions and dynamics of mitochondria, which play a fundamental role in regulating metabolic pathways and are crucial to maintain appropriate energy balance. Similar to mitochondria, the functions and the abilities of stem cells are attenuated under diabetic condition in several tissues. In recent years, several studies have suggested that the regulation of mitochondria functions and dynamics is critical for the precise differentiation of stem cells. Importantly, physical exercise is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration by improving the functions of both mitochondria and stem cells. In the present review, we provide an overview of the diabetic alterations of mitochondria and stem cells and the preventive effects of physical exercise on diabetes, focused on skeletal muscle and the nervous system. We propose physical exercise as a countermeasure for the dysfunction of mitochondria and stem cells in several target tissues under diabetes complication and to improve the physiological function of patients with diabetes, resulting in their quality of life being maintained. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; mitochondria; satellite cells; neural stem cells; exercise diabetes; mitochondria; satellite cells; neural stem cells; exercise
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Fujimaki, S.; Kuwabara, T. Diabetes-Induced Dysfunction of Mitochondria and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and the Nervous System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2147.

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