Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake
AbstractHigh salt intake has been related to the development to chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as hypertension. In its early stages, symptoms of CKD are usually not apparent, especially those that are induced in a “silent” manner in normotensive individuals, thereby providing a need for some kind of urinary biomarker to detect injury at an early stage. Because traditional renal biomarkers such as serum creatinine are insensitive, it is difficult to detect kidney injury induced by a high-salt diet, especially in normotensive individuals. Recently, several new biomarkers for damage of renal tubular epithelia such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) have been identified. Previously, we found a novel renal biomarker, urinary vanin-1, in several animal models with renal tubular injury. However, there are few studies about early biomarkers of the progression to CKD associated with a high-salt diet. This review presents some new insights about these novel biomarkers for CKD in normotensives and hypertensives under a high salt intake. Interestingly, our recent reports using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) fed a high-salt diet revealed that urinary vanin-1 and NGAL are earlier biomarkers of renal tubular damage in SHR and WKY, whereas urinary Kim-1 is only useful as a biomarker of salt-induced renal injury in SHR. Clinical studies will be needed to clarify these findings. View Full-Text
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Hosohata, K. Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2080.
Hosohata K. Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(10):2080.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hosohata, Keiko. 2017. "Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 10: 2080.
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