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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2080; doi:10.3390/ijms18102080

Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake

Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka 569-1094, Japan
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
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Abstract

High salt intake has been related to the development to chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as hypertension. In its early stages, symptoms of CKD are usually not apparent, especially those that are induced in a “silent” manner in normotensive individuals, thereby providing a need for some kind of urinary biomarker to detect injury at an early stage. Because traditional renal biomarkers such as serum creatinine are insensitive, it is difficult to detect kidney injury induced by a high-salt diet, especially in normotensive individuals. Recently, several new biomarkers for damage of renal tubular epithelia such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) have been identified. Previously, we found a novel renal biomarker, urinary vanin-1, in several animal models with renal tubular injury. However, there are few studies about early biomarkers of the progression to CKD associated with a high-salt diet. This review presents some new insights about these novel biomarkers for CKD in normotensives and hypertensives under a high salt intake. Interestingly, our recent reports using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) fed a high-salt diet revealed that urinary vanin-1 and NGAL are earlier biomarkers of renal tubular damage in SHR and WKY, whereas urinary Kim-1 is only useful as a biomarker of salt-induced renal injury in SHR. Clinical studies will be needed to clarify these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-salt diet; hypertensive; normotensive; renal tubular injury chronic kidney disease; early biomarker; spontaneously hypertensive rats; Wistar Kyoto rats high-salt diet; hypertensive; normotensive; renal tubular injury chronic kidney disease; early biomarker; spontaneously hypertensive rats; Wistar Kyoto rats
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hosohata, K. Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2080.

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