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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2077; doi:10.3390/ijms18102077

Biofilm Formation by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Is Favored under Oxygen Conditions That Mimic the Bladder Environment

1
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
4
Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Current address: Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz 95064, CA, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Urology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1674 KB, uploaded 30 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

One of the most common urologic problems afflicting millions of people worldwide is urinary tract infection (UTI). The severity of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute cystitis, and in severe cases, pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The primary cause of UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), for which current antibiotic therapies often fail. UPEC forms multicellular communities known as biofilms on urinary catheters, as well as on and within bladder epithelial cells. Biofilm formation protects UPEC from environmental conditions, antimicrobial therapy, and the host immune system. Previous studies have investigated UPEC biofilm formation in aerobic conditions (21% oxygen); however, urine oxygen tension is reduced (4–6%), and urine contains molecules that can be used by UPEC as alternative terminal electron acceptors (ATEAs) for respiration. This study was designed to determine whether these different terminal electron acceptors utilized by E. coli influence biofilm formation. A panel of 50 urine-associated E. coli isolates was tested for the ability to form biofilm under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of ATEAs. Biofilm production was reduced under all tested sub-atmospheric levels of oxygen, with the notable exception of 4% oxygen, the reported concentration of oxygen within the bladder. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial biofilms; E. coli respiration; terminal electron acceptor; urinary tract infection; uropathogenic E. coli bacterial biofilms; E. coli respiration; terminal electron acceptor; urinary tract infection; uropathogenic E. coli
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Eberly, A.R.; Floyd, K.A.; Beebout, C.J.; Colling, S.J.; Fitzgerald, M.J.; Stratton, C.W.; Schmitz, J.E.; Hadjifrangiskou, M. Biofilm Formation by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Is Favored under Oxygen Conditions That Mimic the Bladder Environment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2077.

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