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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 55; doi:10.3390/ijms18010055

Aquaporins in Brain Edema and Neuropathological Conditions

1
Division of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical School, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
3
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
4
Department of Neurosurgery, The Chiari Institute, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenichi Ishibashi
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaporin)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [663 KB, uploaded 29 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The aquaporin (AQP) family of water channels are a group of small, membrane-spanning proteins that are vital for the rapid transport of water across the plasma membrane. These proteins are widely expressed, from tissues such as the renal epithelium and erythrocytes to the various cells of the central nervous system. This review will elucidate the basic structure and distribution of aquaporins and discuss the role of aquaporins in various neuropathologies. AQP1 and AQP4, the two primary aquaporin molecules of the central nervous system, regulate brain water and CSF movement and contribute to cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, where they control the size of the intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes, respectively. AQP4 expression is vital to the cellular migration and angiogenesis at the heart of tumor growth; AQP4 is central to dysfunctions in glutamate metabolism, synaptogenesis, and memory consolidation; and AQP1 and AQP4 adaptations have been seen in obstructive and non-obstructive hydrocephalus and may be therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaporin 1 (AQP1); AQP4; aquaporins; neuroscience aquaporin 1 (AQP1); AQP4; aquaporins; neuroscience
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Filippidis, A.S.; Carozza, R.B.; Rekate, H.L. Aquaporins in Brain Edema and Neuropathological Conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 55.

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