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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 53; doi:10.3390/ijms18010053

Transcriptional Regulation and Transport of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid in Catharanthus roseus: Exploration of New Research Directions

1
College of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130047, China
2
Crop Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066, China
3
West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610066, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8930 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

As one of the model medicinal plants for exploration of biochemical pathways and molecular biological questions on complex metabolic pathways, Catharanthus roseus synthesizes more than 100 terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) used for clinical treatment of various diseases and for new drug discovery. Given that extensive studies have revealed the major metabolic pathways and the spatial-temporal biosynthesis of TIA in C. roseus plant, little is known about subcellular and inter-cellular trafficking or long-distance transport of TIA end products or intermediates, as well as their regulation. While these transport processes are indispensable for multi-organelle, -tissue and -cell biosynthesis, storage and their functions, great efforts have been made to explore these dynamic cellular processes. Progress has been made in past decades on transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis by transcription factors as either activators or repressors; recent studies also revealed several transporters involved in subcellular and inter-cellular TIA trafficking. However, many details and the regulatory network for controlling the tissue-or cell-specific biosynthesis, transport and storage of serpentine and ajmalicine in root, catharanthine in leaf and root, vindoline specifically in leaf and vinblastine and vincristine only in green leaf and their biosynthetic intermediates remain to be determined. This review is to summarize the progress made in biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and transport of TIAs. Based on analysis of organelle, tissue and cell-type specific biosynthesis and progresses in transport and trafficking of similar natural products, the transporters that might be involved in transport of TIAs and their synthetic intermediates are discussed; according to transcriptome analysis and bioinformatic approaches, the transcription factors that might be involved in TIA biosynthesis are analyzed. Further discussion is made on a broad context of transcriptional and transport regulation in order to guide our future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: terpenoid indole alkaloids; biosynthesis; transcription factor; transporter; regulatory network; compartmentation terpenoid indole alkaloids; biosynthesis; transcription factor; transporter; regulatory network; compartmentation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, J.; Cai, J.; Wang, R.; Yang, S. Transcriptional Regulation and Transport of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid in Catharanthus roseus: Exploration of New Research Directions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 53.

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