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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 24; doi:10.3390/ijms18010024

A Review of Analytical Techniques and Their Application in Disease Diagnosis in Breathomics and Salivaomics Research

Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Land & Water, P.O. Box 2583, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Science, RMIT University, P.O. Box 2547, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza (VIDRL), Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, 792 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
School of Applied and Biomedical Sciences, Federation University, Churchill, VIC 3350, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting-Li (Morgan) Han
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Technologies in Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1511 KB, uploaded 23 December 2016]   |  


The application of metabolomics to biological samples has been a key focus in systems biology research, which is aimed at the development of rapid diagnostic methods and the creation of personalized medicine. More recently, there has been a strong focus towards this approach applied to non-invasively acquired samples, such as saliva and exhaled breath. The analysis of these biological samples, in conjunction with other sample types and traditional diagnostic tests, has resulted in faster and more reliable characterization of a range of health disorders and diseases. As the sampling process involved in collecting exhaled breath and saliva is non-intrusive as well as comparatively low-cost and uses a series of widely accepted methods, it provides researchers with easy access to the metabolites secreted by the human body. Owing to its accuracy and rapid nature, metabolomic analysis of saliva and breath (known as salivaomics and breathomics, respectively) is a rapidly growing field and has shown potential to be effective in detecting and diagnosing the early stages of numerous diseases and infections in preclinical studies. This review discusses the various collection and analyses methods currently applied in two of the least used non-invasive sample types in metabolomics, specifically their application in salivaomics and breathomics research. Some of the salient research completed in this field to date is also assessed and discussed in order to provide a basis to advocate their use and possible future scientific directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: breath; saliva; metabolomics; bioinformatics; gas chromatography; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry breath; saliva; metabolomics; bioinformatics; gas chromatography; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Beale, D.J.; Jones, O.A.H.; Karpe, A.V.; Dayalan, S.; Oh, D.Y.; Kouremenos, K.A.; Ahmed, W.; Palombo, E.A. A Review of Analytical Techniques and Their Application in Disease Diagnosis in Breathomics and Salivaomics Research. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 24.

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