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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 198; doi:10.3390/ijms18010198

Advances in Monitoring Cell-Based Therapies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Future Perspectives

1
In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging Center, Division of Cancer Imaging Research, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Muraca
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cell Transplantation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2985 KB, uploaded 19 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cell-based therapies are currently being developed for applications in both regenerative medicine and in oncology. Preclinical, translational, and clinical research on cell-based therapies will benefit tremendously from novel imaging approaches that enable the effective monitoring of the delivery, survival, migration, biodistribution, and integration of transplanted cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers several advantages over other imaging modalities for elucidating the fate of transplanted cells both preclinically and clinically. These advantages include the ability to image transplanted cells longitudinally at high spatial resolution without exposure to ionizing radiation, and the possibility to co-register anatomical structures with molecular processes and functional changes. However, since cellular MRI is still in its infancy, it currently faces a number of challenges, which provide avenues for future research and development. In this review, we describe the basic principle of cell-tracking with MRI; explain the different approaches currently used to monitor cell-based therapies; describe currently available MRI contrast generation mechanisms and strategies for monitoring transplanted cells; discuss some of the challenges in tracking transplanted cells; and suggest future research directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell-based therapies; cell-tracking; cellular MRI; MRI contrast agents; environmentally-responsive MRI biosensors cell-based therapies; cell-tracking; cellular MRI; MRI contrast agents; environmentally-responsive MRI biosensors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ngen, E.J.; Artemov, D. Advances in Monitoring Cell-Based Therapies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 198.

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