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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 129; doi:10.3390/ijms18010129

Pathophysiology and the Monitoring Methods for Cardiac Arrest Associated Brain Injury

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11041 Campus Street, Risley Hall, Room 219, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 31 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1212 KB, uploaded 11 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cardiac arrest (CA) is a well-known cause of global brain ischemia. After CA and subsequent loss of consciousness, oxygen tension starts to decline and leads to a series of cellular changes that will lead to cellular death, if not reversed immediately, with brain edema as a result. The electroencephalographic activity starts to change as well. Although increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is not a direct result of cardiac arrest, it can still occur due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy induced changes in brain tissue, and is a measure of brain edema after CA and ischemic brain injury. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of brain edema after CA, some available techniques, and methods to monitor brain oxygen, electroencephalography (EEG), ICP (intracranial pressure), and microdialysis on its measurement of cerebral metabolism and its usefulness both in clinical practice and possible basic science research in development. With this review, we hope to gain knowledge of the more personalized information about patient status and specifics of their brain injury, and thus facilitating the physicians’ decision making in terms of which treatments to pursue. View Full-Text
Keywords: ICP monitoring; cerebral autoregulation; Electrophysiologic monitoring; brain injury after cardiac arrest; brain oxygen monitoring; microdialysis; metabolic tracing and cardiac arrest brain injury; intracranial pressure ICP monitoring; cerebral autoregulation; Electrophysiologic monitoring; brain injury after cardiac arrest; brain oxygen monitoring; microdialysis; metabolic tracing and cardiac arrest brain injury; intracranial pressure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reis, C.; Akyol, O.; Araujo, C.; Huang, L.; Enkhjargal, B.; Malaguit, J.; Gospodarev, V.; Zhang, J.H. Pathophysiology and the Monitoring Methods for Cardiac Arrest Associated Brain Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 129.

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