Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans under Acid Stress—A New Insight for Caries Research
Previous Article in Journal
Astroglial Activation by an Enriched Environment after Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Angiogenesis after Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1551; doi:10.3390/ijms17091551

Expression of Transglutaminase in Foreskin of Children with Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans

1
Department of Human Pathology of Adult and Childhood “Gaetano Barresi”, University of Messina, Messina 98125, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina 98125, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terrence Piva
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [908 KB, uploaded 14 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder of unclear etiology. The etiology and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are still unknown. The human transglutaminase (TG) family consists of several proteins with catalytic activity essential for biological processes. In the present research we investigated the transcript levels of three TGs in patients operated on for congenital phimosis without or with histologically confirmed BXO; Thirty children with acquired phimosis were enrolled. The removed foreskins were sent both for histological diagnosis and for quantitative real-time PCR to evaluate the transcript levels of keratinocyte (TG1), tissue (TG2), and epidermal (TG3) transglutaminase; We observed a decrease in TG1 and TG3 transcripts by about 70% (p < 0.001) in foreskins from patients with BXO (n = 15) in comparison with patients without BXO (n = 15) and an increase in TG2 mRNA levels by 2.9 folds (p < 0.001); Reduced expression of both TG1 and TG3 was associated with the altered structure of the foreskin in BXO and can be a consequence of damage to keratinocytes. Increased expression of TG2 can be the result of chronic inflammation. TG2 overexpression can play a pivotal role in triggering and maintaining the inflammatory response in BXO patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: balanitis xerotica obliterans; phimosis; foreskin; transglutaminase; IFN-γ; E-cadherin balanitis xerotica obliterans; phimosis; foreskin; transglutaminase; IFN-γ; E-cadherin
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Russo, T.; Currò, M.; Barbera, A.; Caccamo, D.; Antonuccio, P.; Arena, S.; Montalto, A.S.; Parisi, S.; Marseglia, L.; Gitto, E.; Ientile, R.; Impellizzeri, P.; Romeo, C. Expression of Transglutaminase in Foreskin of Children with Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1551.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top