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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1528; doi:10.3390/ijms17091528

Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, 64849 Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
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Academic Editors: Maurizio Battino and Francesca Giampieri
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
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Abstract

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica. View Full-Text
Keywords: supercritical-CO2; Mexican arnica; Heterotheca inuloides; antioxidant; paper-disc difussion test; fatty acid; sesquiterpenoids supercritical-CO2; Mexican arnica; Heterotheca inuloides; antioxidant; paper-disc difussion test; fatty acid; sesquiterpenoids
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Pérez, J.S.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, S.P.; Arévalo-Gallegos, A.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J.; Iqbal, H.M.N.; Parra-Saldivar, R. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1528.

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