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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1447; doi:10.3390/ijms17091447

Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pamela Lein
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [357 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]

Abstract

Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal model; cognition; dementia; learning; memory; toxin animal model; cognition; dementia; learning; memory; toxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

More, S.V.; Kumar, H.; Cho, D.-Y.; Yun, Y.-S.; Choi, D.-K. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1447.

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