Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment
AbstractAnimal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders. View Full-Text
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More, S.V.; Kumar, H.; Cho, D.-Y.; Yun, Y.-S.; Choi, D.-K. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1447.
More SV, Kumar H, Cho D-Y, Yun Y-S, Choi D-K. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(9):1447.Chicago/Turabian Style
More, Sandeep V.; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug. 2016. "Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 9: 1447.