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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1446; doi:10.3390/ijms17091446

Epigenetic Regulation of Bone Remodeling and Its Impacts in Osteoporosis

1
Oral Biotechnology & Bioengineering, Center for Dental Medicine, Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, University of Zurich, Zurich 8032, Switzerland
2
CABMM, Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057, Switzerland
3
Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Zurich 8057, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walter Herzog
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Epigenetics describes mechanisms which control gene expression and cellular processes without changing the DNA sequence. The main mechanisms in epigenetics are DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). DNA methylation modifies the function of the DNA and correlates with gene silencing. Histone modifications including acetylation/deacetylation and phosphorylation act in diverse biological processes such as transcriptional activation/inactivation and DNA repair. Non-coding RNAs play a large part in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in addition to their roles at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Osteoporosis is the most common skeletal disorder, characterized by compromised bone strength and bone micro-architectural deterioration that predisposes the bones to an increased risk of fracture. It is most often caused by an increase in bone resorption that is not sufficiently compensated by a corresponding increase in bone formation. Nowadays it is well accepted that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disorder and there are genetic risk factors for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Here we review emerging evidence that epigenetics contributes to the machinery that can alter DNA structure, gene expression, and cellular differentiation during physiological and pathological bone remodeling. View Full-Text
Keywords: Genetics–Epigenetics; osteoporosis; bromodomain inhibitor; HDAC inhibitor; bone regeneration Genetics–Epigenetics; osteoporosis; bromodomain inhibitor; HDAC inhibitor; bone regeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ghayor, C.; Weber, F.E. Epigenetic Regulation of Bone Remodeling and Its Impacts in Osteoporosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1446.

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